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Hughes GJ , Willey SJ , Cochrane A , Leen C , Bell JE , Simmonds P . 2007. Virus immunocapture provides evidence of CD8 lymphocyte-derived HIV-1 in vivo. AIDS , 21 (12), pp. 1507-1513. | Dune Womens Nenna Ankle Strap Sandals Outlet For Sale Official Online Buy Cheap Cost Cool TvpMN3jbmz
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OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that HIV-1 immunocapture with an antibody against CD8 specifically captures virions derived from infected CD8 T cells, and to determine the proportion of HIV-1 derived from CD8 lymphocytes in plasma samples from HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: A virus capture method was developed to enable the detection of HIV-1 virions based upon the presence of certain cell-specific host-derived proteins (CD8, CD3, CD36) within the viral envelope. HIV-1 virions were captured using antibodies against these proteins and levels of bound virus were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Highly pure CD8 and CD3+CD8- T-cell cultures were used as in-vitro models to determine the specificity of the virus capture technique. RESULTS: The in-vitro model demonstrates that incorporation of the CD8 molecule into released virions is specific to infection of CD8 T cells. Levels of HIV-1 immunocaptured from plasma of infected individuals using the anti-CD8 antibody indicate that up to 15% (range 10-33) of the plasma viral load is derived from CD8 lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates for the first time that HIV-1-infected CD8 T cells can contribute substantially to levels of circulating virus during the course of infection. Levels of CD8-derived virus did not correlate with the level of infection of circulating CD8 T cells, but do show a significantly good fit to plasma viral loads based on a power model. The extensive infection of CD8 T cells implied by these results may contribute towards immune dysfunction and disease progression to AIDS.

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BACKGROUND: PARV4 and human bocavirus (HBoV) are newly discovered human parvoviruses with poorly understood epidemiologies and disease associations. We investigated the frequencies of persistence, tissue distribution, and influence of immunosuppression on replication of these viruses. METHODS: At autopsy, bone marrow, lymphoid tissue, and brain tissue from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and those without AIDS and from HIV-uninfected individuals were screened for parvovirus B19, PARV4, and HBoV DNA by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. RESULTS: B19 DNA was detected both in HIV-infected study subjects (13 of 24) and in HIV-uninfected study subjects (8 of 8), whereas PARV4 DNA was detected only in HIV-infected study subjects (17 of 24). HBoV DNA was not detected in any study subjects. The degree of immunosuppression with HIV infection did not influence B19 or PARV4 viral loads. B19 or PARV4 plasma viremia was not detected in any study subjects (n=76; viral load <25 DNA copies/mL). A significantly older age distribution was found for study subjects infected with B19 genotype 2, compared with those infected with B19 genotype 1. Two genotypes of PARV4 were detected; study subjects carrying prototype PARV4 (genotype 1) were younger (all born after 1958) than those infected with genotype 2 (PARV5; study subjects born between 1949 and 1956). CONCLUSIONS: Tight immune control of replication of B19 and PARV4 was retained despite profound immunosuppression. Recent genotype replacement of PARV4, combined with absent sequence diversity among genotype 1 sequences, suggests a recent, epidemic spread in the United Kingdom, potentially through transmission routes shared by HIV.

Bell J , Arango JC , Nailon WI , Brannan F , Simmonds P . 2000. Drug abuse and HIV infection - Dual threat to the nervous system BRAIN PATHOLOGY , 10 (4), pp. 758-758.

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The molecular epidemiology of type 2a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in patients undergoing haemodialysis in the same unit in a Turkish hospital was investigated. Of nine HCV-infected patients four were infected with type 2a, four with type 1b and one with type 1a viruses. Since type 2 HCV infections in the Turkish population are rare, the possibility of nosocomial infection was investigated by means of phylogenetic analysis of viral sequences amplified by the polymerase chain reaction in the NS5b region. One of the samples failed to show amplification and therefore could not be sequenced. The sequences of the remaining three virus samples were grouped closely in a cluster within the type 2a group. The results thus showed that three patients were infected with the same HCV type 2a strain. Seroconversion and clinical data suggested that these patients may have been infected on different occasions, there being possibly more than one mode of transmission. Breaches in infection control procedures and lack of environmental decontamination between two haemodialysis sessions were probably the causes of HCV infections in these patients.

Jarvis L , Cleland A , Simmonds P , Dow B , Munro M , Jordan A , Prowse C , Yap PL . 2000. Screening blood donations for hepatitis C virus by polymerase chain reaction. Vox Sang , 78 (1), pp. 57-58. | Read more

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Comparison of 33 epidemiologically distinct GBV-C/hepatitis G virus complete genome sequences suggests the existence of four major phylogenetic groupings that are equally divergent from the chimpanzee isolate GBV-C(tro) and have distinct geographical distributions. These four groupings are not consistently reproduced by analysis of the virus 5'-noncoding region (5'-NCR), or of individual genes or subgenomic fragments with the exception of the E2 gene as a whole or of 200-600 nucleotide fragments from its 3' half. This region is upstream of a proposed anti-sense reading frame and contains conserved potential RNA secondary structures that may be capable of directing the internal initiation of translation. Phylogenetic analysis of this region from certain South African isolates is consistent with previous analysis of the 5'-NCR suggesting that these belong to a fifth group. The geographical distribution of virus variants is consistent with a long evolutionary history that may parallel that of pre-historic human migrations, implying that the long-term evolution of this RNA virus is extremely slow.

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